Nervous System – Glossary, Terms 2


Nervous System Glossary

Nervous System: Key Terms with definitions

autonomic division / autonomic nervous system (ANS) Division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary actions; composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
axon An elongated extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body (typically from the cell body to the synapse)
axon terminal The end of an axon
brain stem Portion of the brain that lies below the cerebrum and links it to the spinal cord; consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
central nervous system (CNS) Portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord; control the flow of information in the body
cerebellum (plural cerebellums or cerebella) A posterior portion of the brain (posterior to the medulla oblongata and pons); coordinates skeletal muscles to produce smooth motions; controls subconscious activities
cerebral cortex The outer gray matter region of the cerebral hemispheres that receives sensory information and controls motor activities
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A plasma-like fluid that fills the cavities of the CNS and surrounds the CNS externally; maintains uniform pressure within the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum (plural cerebra) The two hemispheres of the forebrain; involved in higher mental functions
dendrite a cytoplasmic extension of a neuron that conducts signals toward the cell body
hypothalamus A portion of the diencephalon, located below the thalamus that coordinates the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
interneuron A neuron located within the central nervous system, between the afferent neuron and the final neuron; conveys messages between parts of the central nervous system
medulla oblongata The lower portion of the brain stem; immediately adjacent to the spinal cord; Contains reflex centers; associated with heart beat, breathing controls, blood pressure etc.
membrane potential The difference in electrical charge between two sides of a membrane
midbrain Region of the brain stem that contains reflex centers and tracts; located below thalamus and above pons
motor neuron A neuron in the peripheral nervous system that conducts impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
myelin sheath White layer of fatty material; derived from the membrane of Schwann cells; surrounds certain nerve fibers and acts as an electrical insulator
nerve Cable-like bundle of many neuron axons through which nerve impulses travel between the central nervous system and other parts of our body, enabling you to move, feel pain, etc.
neuroglia Non-conducting nerve cells that provide support and protection to neurons
neuron Cell of the nervous system that is specialized to receive and conduct electrical impulses
neurotransmitter a chemical substance released by a neuron that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
resting potential The slight difference in voltage (electrical potential across the cell membrane of a nerve cell or muscle cell) due to an unequal distribution of ions
somatic division Division of the nervous system that is involved in conscious
synapse Gap (Functional junction) between neurons

Nervous System: Other Terms you should know

acetylcholine (ACh) interneuron
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) learning
action potential limbic system
afferent long-term memory
amygdala long-term potentiation (LTP)
association area medulla oblongata
autonomic division (ANS) membrane potential
autonomic nervous system memory
axon meninges
axon terminal midbrain
basal nuclei motor neuron
blood-brain barrier myelin
brain myelin sheath
brain stem nerve
Broca’s area nerve signal
cell body nervous system
central nervous system (CNS) neuroglia
cerebellum neuron
cerebral cortex neurotransmitter
cerebral hemisphere node of Ranvier
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE)
cerebrum nuclei
corpus callosum parasympathetic division
cortex peripheral nervous
cranial nerve peripheral nervous system (PNS)
dendrite pons
depolarization postsynaptic neuron
diencephalon presynaptic neuron
dopamine proprioception
dorsal-root ganglion reflex
effector refractory period
efferent resting potential
episodic memory sensory neuron
forebrain sensory receptor
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) somatic division
ganglia somatic nervous system
glutamate special senses
graded potential sulcus (pl. sulci)
gray matter sympathetic division
gyrus (pl. gyri) synapse
hemispheric lateralization system
hindbrain terminal bulb
hippocampus thalamus
hypothalamus threshold
integration tracts

2 thoughts on “Nervous System – Glossary, Terms

  • mayuri chatterjee

    terms are usefull

Comments are closed.