Excretory System – Glossary, Terms


Excretory System Glossary

Excretory System: Key Terms with definitions

aldosterone Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex; affects water balance by regulating sodium and potassium excretion
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulates reabsorption of water by kidneys; dilutes the blood (decreasing the concentrations of solutes such as sodium)
collecting duct Duct within the kidney; receives fluid from nephrons; responsible for reabsorption of water
feces Waste products made by the digestive system
glomerular capsule Bowman’s Capsule (also known as the Glomerular Capsule) is a double-walled epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerulus at the beginning of the nephron and collects the filtrate.
glomerulus A cluster of capillaries surrounded by the glomerular capsule in a nephron, where blood is filtered; involved in the formation of the glomerular filtrate
kidney tubules Microscopically, tiny tubes in the kidneys; collect fluid as it leaks out of glomeruli (blood vessels); Kidneys reabsorb Na+, Ca2+ and water from kidney tubules; Cuboidal epithelium forms the kidney tubules
loop of Henle The loop of Henle (also called theloop of the nephron) is a hairpin-shaped (U-shaped) tubular structure that extends into the medulla of a nephron; reabsorbs water and salts from the urine collected by the glomerulus
nephron The microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney; filtering unit of the kidney; regulates blood composition by glomerular filtration
renal cortex Outermost portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla; granular outer layer of the kidney
renal medulla Inner two-thirds portion of the kidney that consists of cone-shaped tissue masses called renal pyramids
renal pelvis A funnel-shaped structure in the center of the kidney; this hollow chamber lies inside the renal medulla; collects freshly urine from the collecting ducts after it is formed; passes urine to the ureters
renin An enzyme secreted by kidneys that leads to the secretion of aldosterone and a rise in blood pressure
tubular reabsorption Movement of water and primarily nutrients from the renal tubules into the blood
tubular secretion Movement of solutes such as drugs, metabolic wastes, and excess ions (hydrogen, ammonium, and potassium) from blood into the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron
urea The principal nitrogen containing waste excreted in urine; derived from amino acid breakdown
ureter One of two narrow tubes that take urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
urethra Duct from the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body; this tubular structure receives urine from the bladder and carries it to the outside of the body
urinary bladder A hollow, muscular organ that stores urine

Excretory System: Other terms you should know

acidosis loop of Henle
afferent arteriole loop of the nephron
aldosterone mechanism
alkalosis microvilli
ammonia micturition
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) nephron
aquaporin network
atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) nitrogenous wastes
Bowman’s capsule osmolarity
buffer peritoneum
calcium oxalate peritubular capillaries
casts peritubular capillary
collecting duct proximal convoluted
constipation proximal tubule
countercurrent exchange pyelonephritis
creatinine reabsorption
cystitis renal artery
diabetes mellitus renal cortex
dialysate renal medulla
dialysis renal pelvis
distal convoluted tubule renal tubule
distal tubule renal vein
diuretic renin
efferent arteriole secretion
erythropoietin (EPO) solute
excretion sphincter
external sphincter muscle tubular reabsorption
facilitated diffusion tubular secretion
feces tubule
filtration urea
glomerular capsule uremia
glomerular filtrate ureter
glomerular filtration urethra
glomerulus urethritis
gout uric acid
hemodialysis urinary bladder
incontinence urinary tract
internal urethral sphincter urine
juxtaglomerular apparatus urochrome
kidney vasa recta
kidney tubules

Keywords: Excretory System Terms | Urinary System Terms | Urinary System and Excretion Terms | Excretory Products and their Elimination Terms

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