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Human Population – An Introduction:
The high death rate prior to 1950 was one of the major factors for keeping the numbers of human from increasing rapidly. However the agricultural and industrial revolution in 19th century, in terms of increasing food production and improved methods of food transportation and other goods, and the advancement of 20th Century in medicine, hygiene and nutrition turned to be the supported unprecedented population growth factors. Man being the most intelligent creature amongst all other living organisms has succeeded to fight against natural calamities and diseases. This has resulted in overpopulation of human beings too.
India is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with regard to density and distribution of population. India ranks second in world population a little behind china. It supports 16.7% of the world’s population on approximately 2.4% of the global land area. This increase had a significant possible effect for the population-resources relationship in the country.
Family planning in India is sponsored by the Indian Government. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare formulate and execute family planning plans in India. In India although the fertility rate has declined remarkably from 5.7 in 1966, it declined to 3.3 by 1997 and 2.7 in 2009. However it has not yet reached replacement rate.
In 2009, Singapore had the lowest estimated fertility rate of 1.1 and in Afghanistan the highest fertility rate of 6.5 was recorded. In India Bihar has the highest fertility rate of 4.0.
All organisms living in a particular ecological unit constitute community and the group of organisms of a single species living in an ecosystem constitutes population. Thus a community is a localized group of several populations.
In simple terms the total number of persons dwelling in a country, city, or any district or area forms a unit of ecosystem called population. It is involved in the energy flow and recycling of the nutrients.
Members of a population have a number of common distinctiveness and share some common genetic material. This enables them to interbreed among themselves to produce fertile offspring.
Demography is the scientific study of statistical and quantitative aspects of human population. It includes the study of the volume, formation and distribution of these populations, and spatial and/or chronological changes in them in regard to birth, aging, death and migration. Analysis of demographic can be applied to the entire societies or to a group while considering different standards/principles such as education, nationality, religion etc. Demography gives an idea about the condition, nature, complexity and need of population. In India the first census after Independence was taken in 1951 and there after it is done after every 10 years. The 2011 census is one of the largest censuses in the history of mankind covering India’s 1.2 billion population and covering all 640 districts, 5,767 Tehsils, 7,742 Towns and more than 6 Lakh villages in the country.