It has been observed that the struggles for Freedom in India had been a merger of a whole series of political events spreading over many decades.
The contribution of various social and religious leaders made the people conscious of India’s rich cultural heritage and helped to eradicate the social evils prevented in society.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772 – 1833)
- Mrs. Annie Besant (1847 – 1933)
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati (1824 – 1883)
- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 – 1898)
- Mahadev Govind Ranade (1842 – 1901)
- Ramkrishna Paramahamsa (1836 – 1886)
- Swami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902)
- Vinoba Bhave: (1895 – 1982)
- Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820 – 1891)
- B. R. Ambedkar: (1891-1956)
The spirit of nationalism in Indian society was very much influenced by the socio-religious reforms propagated by these eminent personalities.
The year 1857 witnessed mutiny and revolt throughout northern India, which is considered as the first milestone in opposition to British rule.
Further extremist leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra, Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal, and Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab launched the idea of the contribution of masses in the national movement. These towering leaders led the Swadeshi movement in India.
The role of Netaji and Indian National Army in freedom struggle was remarkable as well.
However Mahatma Gandhi’s entry into the national movement was major stride who took a leading role in launching several country wide struggles with his non-violent and non-cooperation methods.
The outcome of these struggles infused in Indians the desire to make India free from British rule and finally we got independence in 1947.
Freedom Movement in India (Important Dates)
|1915||Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa to India|
|1916-1918||Local struggles in the form of Peasant movements in Kheda (Gujarat), and workers’ movement in Ahmedabad occured|
|1919||Rowlatt Satyagraha (March-April) – A significant movement under Gandhi’s leadership|
|1919||Jallianwala Bagh massacre (April) – The tragic side of British Power in India|
|1919||Rowlatt Satyagraha – Gandhiji called for a countrywide campaign against the Rowlatt Act.|
|1919-1924||The Khilafat Movement – The movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali|
|1921||Non-cooperation Movement – Gandhi contemplated this non-violent movement against oppressive British rule in India|
|1922||Chauri Chaura (Gorakhpur district) killing; Mahatma Gandhi called off non-cooperation.|
|1925||Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) was founded|
|1927||Simon Commission – The British government appointed a commission to formulate further constitutional reforms for India under Sir John Simon|
|December, 1928||Bhagat Singh killed a senior British police officer in Lahore|
|March-April, 1930||Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement with Gandhi’s salt march to the sea at Dandi to oppose British taxes of salt (Also known as Dandi March)|
|November, 1930||The First Round Table Conference was held in London|
|December, 1931||Second Round Table Conference was held|
|1931||On 5th March 1931 the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed.|
|1932||Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar|
|1935||Government of India Act was passed|
|1939||All congress ministries resigned|
|1942||Quit India Movement (August) – Gandhi launched his third major movement against British rule.|
|1942||Cripps Mission was attempted by British government headed by Sir Stafford Cripps|
|1943||The great Bengal Famine was witnessed, which hit the Bengal province of pre-partition India causing the death of millions of people of starvation, malnutrition and disease|
|August, 1947||India achieved its freedom from British rule.|
Freedom Movement in India (Objective Questions)
|1.||When was Indian National Congress formed?||December 1885|
|2.||Which English officer played an important role in the formation of Indian National Congress?||A. O. Hume.|
|3.||The partition of Bengal was announced by ______ in ______.||Lord Curzon, 1905|
|4.||In 1911 the India’s capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi for ______.||Decreasing the importance of Calcutta|
|5.||Who was the perpetrator of Jallianwala Bagh massacre on 13th of April 1919, at Jalianwalla Bagh in Amritsar (Pubjab).||General Reginald Dyer|
|6.||Ghadar Movement was founded in the city of San Francisco by ______||Sohan Singh Bhakna and Har Dayal|
|7.||She was a Parsi girl, born in Bombay and brought out her own revolutionary journal in awareness of Indian struggle for independence in Europe and America.||Madame Bhikaiji Cama|
|8.||In India the Home rule movement was started by ______.||Annie Besant (1847-1933) andBal Gangadhar Tilak (1844-1920)|
|9.||Khilafat Movement (1919-1920), the movement of Indian Muslims was led by||Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali|
|10.||Why did Gandhiji call off the Non-Cooperation movement?||On the account of theviolence in Chauri-Chaura which caused the death of twenty-two policemen|
Freedom Movement in India (MCQs: Multiple Choice Questions)
|1.||Which of the following statement is not correct regarding Rowlatt Act?
(A) This act was meant to give the government enormous power to repress political activities.
(B) Government could arrest anybody without a trial for two years under this act.
(C) In response to Rowlatt Act Gandhiji had called for a nationwide campaign in 1991
(D) The tough measures of Rowlatt Act was chaired by Sir Stafford Cripps
|2.||Which one of the following statements is correct?
(A) Civil Disobedience Movement was started based on the issue of salt
(B) Dandi March was started from Gandhiji’s ashram at Wardha.
(C) Gandhi violated the salt laws on April 6, 1930
(D) Salt march was widely covered by the European and American press.
|3.||In 1923 by whom Swaraj Party was founded?
(A) Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das.
(B) Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chatterji
(C) Gandhiji and Jawaharlal Nehru
(D) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Vithalbhai Patel